MySQL Database

MySQL is among the world's most used relational database management systems (RDBMS) that runs as a server providing multi-user access to a number of databases.

The MySQL development project has made its source code available under the terms of the GNU General Public License, as well as under a variety of proprietary agreements. MySQL was owned and sponsored by a single for-profit firm, the Swedish company MySQL AB, now owned by Oracle Corporation.

Free-software-open source projects that require a full-featured database management system often use MySQL. For commercial use, several paid editions are available, and offer additional functionality.

MySQL is a popular choice of database for use in web applications, and is a central component of the widely used LAMP open source web application software stack. Free-software-open source projects that require a full-featured database management system often use MySQL.

Applications which use MySQL databases include: TYPO3, Joomla, WordPress, phpBB, Drupal and other software built on the LAMP software stack.

MySQL is also used in many high-profile, large-scale World Wide Web products, including Flickr,, YouTube Wikipedia, Google, Facebook and Twitter.

Platforms and interfaces
MySQL is written in C and C++. Its SQL parser is written in yacc, and a home-brewed lexical analyzer named

MySQL works on many different system platforms, including AIX, BSDi, FreeBSD, HP-UX, eComStation, i5/OS, IRIX, Linux, Mac OS X, Microsoft Windows, NetBSD, Novell NetWare, OpenBSD, OpenSolaris, OS/2 Warp, QNX, Solaris, Symbian, SunOS, SCO OpenServer, SCO UnixWare, Sanos and Tru64. A port of MySQL to OpenVMS also exists.

Many programming languages with language-specific APIs include libraries for accessing MySQL databases. These include MySQL Connector/Net for integration with Microsoft's Visual Studio (languages such as C# and VB are most commonly used) and the JDBC driver for Java. In addition, an ODBC interface called MyODBC allows additional programming languages that support the ODBC interface to communicate with a MySQL database, such as ASP or ColdFusion. The HTSQL - URL-based query method also ships with a MySQL adapter, allowing direct interaction between a MySQL database and any web client via structured URLs.

Management and graphical frontends
MySQL is primarily an RDBMS and ships with no GUI tools to administer MySQL databases or manage data contained within the databases. Users may use the included command line tools, or download MySQL front-ends from various parties that have developed desktop software and web applications to manage MySQL databases, build database structures, and work with data records.

Command line
MySQL ships with a suite of command-line tools for tasks such as querying the database, backing up data, inspecting status, performing common tasks such as creating a database, and many more. A variety of third-party command-line tools is also available, including Maatkit, which is written in Perl.

MySQL can be built and installed manually from source code, but this can be tedious so it is more commonly installed from a binary package unless special customizations are required. On most Linux distributions the package management system can download and install MySQL with minimal effort, though further configuration is often required to adjust security and optimization settings.

Though MySQL began as a low-end alternative to more powerful proprietary databases, it has gradually evolved to support higher-scale needs as well. It is still most commonly used in small to medium scale single-server deployments, either as a component in a LAMP-based web application or as a standalone database server. Much of MySQL's appeal originates in its relative simplicity and ease of use, which is enabled by an ecosystem of open source tools such as phpMyAdmin. In the medium range, MySQL can be scaled by deploying it on more powerful hardware, such as a multi-processor server with gigabytes of memory.

There are however limits to how far performance can scale on a single server, so on larger scales, multi-server MySQL deployments are required to provide improved performance and reliability. A typical high-end configuration can include a powerful master database which handles data write operations and is replicated to multiple slaves that handle all read operations. The master server synchronizes continually with its slaves so in the event of failure a slave can be promoted to become the new master, minimizing downtime. Further improvements in performance can be achieved by caching the results from database queries in memory using memcached, or breaking down a database into smaller chunks called shards which can be spread across a number of distributed server clusters

Cloud-Based deployment
MAnother deployment option is running MySQL on cloud computing platforms such as Amazon EC2. There are two common deployment models for MySQL on the cloud:
  • Virtual Machine Image
    Cloud users can upload a machine image of their own with MySQL installed, or use a ready-made machine image with an optimized installation of MySQL on it, such as the one provided by Amazon EC2.

  • MySQL as a Service
    Some cloud platforms offer MySQL "as a service". In this configuration, application owners do not have to install and maintain the MySQL database on their own. Instead, the database service provider takes responsibility for installing and maintaining the database, and application owners pay according to their usage. Two notable cloud-based MySQL services are the Amazon Relational Database Service, and the Xeround Cloud Database, which runs on EC2, Rackspace and Heroku.
A third option is managed MySQL hosting on the cloud, where the database is not offered as a service, but the cloud provider hosts the database and manages it on the application owner's behalf.

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